Scientists from Princeton were awarded a 3M$ grant from the US Air Force to study new fuel additives made of graphene (nanocatalysts) can help engines be more efficient and clean. The Air Force is interested in this because it may help make aircrafts fly faster.
The particles were already shown to help fuels ignite and burn faster, by lowering the temperature at which the fuel ignites. The grant will help the scientists understand why is that, and what kind of particles will work best.
The catalyst might also be used to reduce the amount of nitric oxide produced by diesel engines or accelerate soot oxidation rates, which could reduce the pollution and fuel use. The graphene particles might also be used in liquid propellants for thrusters that help satellites position themselves in space.