Researchers at the Virginia Commonwealth University and universities in China and Japan suggested a new carbon allotrope called "penta-graphene" (a five-sided variation on the familiar six-sided graphene structure), speculated to have several advantages compared to traditional graphene.

Currently in the computer modelling phase, the material appears to be dynamically, thermally and mechanically stable. The researchers claim that the material might outperform graphene in certain applications, as it would be mechanically stable, possess very high strength, and be capable of withstanding temperatures of up to 1,000 degrees Kelvin. 

Penta-graphene is a semiconductor, whereas graphene is a conductor of electricity. Penta-graphene also stretches in both pulled directions, unlike graphene that expands along the direction it is stretched, but contracts along the perpendicular direction. Penta-graphene's properties suggest that it may have applications in electronics, biomedicine, nanotechnology and more.

The scientists have yet to actually synthesize penta-graphene.