A research team at Chalmers University has shown that a layer of vertical graphene flakes forms a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore help protect patients against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration - the process by which the bone structure grow to attach the implant - is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells.

Chalmers University researchers stated that the biological applications of graphene began to materialize a few years ago. The researchers saw conflicting results in earlier studies, in which some showed that graphene damaged the bacteria, others that they were not affected. "We discovered that the key parameter is to orient the graphene vertically. If it is horizontal, the bacteria are not harmed" says Ivan Mijakovic, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering.

The team explained that the sharp flakes do not damage human cells. The reason is that one bacterium is one micrometer - one thousandth of a millimeter - in diameter, while a human cell is 25 micrometers. So, what constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium, is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell.

"Graphene has high potential for health applications. But more research is needed before we can claim it is entirely safe. Among other things, we know that graphene does not degrade easily" says Jie Sun, Associate Professor at the Department of Micro Technology and Nanoscience.

In addition, good bacteria are also killed by the graphene. But that's not a problem, as the effect is localized and the balance of microflora in the body remains undisturbed.

"We want to prevent bacteria from creating an infection. Otherwise, you may need antibiotics, which could disrupt the balance of normal bacteria and also enhance the risk of antimicrobial resistance by pathogens" says Santosh Pandit, postdoc at Biology and Biological Engineering.



Vertical flakes of graphene are not a new invention, having existed for a few years. But the Chalmers research teams are the first to use the vertical graphene in this way. The next step for the research team will be to test the graphene flakes further, by coating implant surfaces and studying the effect on animal cells.

Chalmers cooperated with Wellspect Healthcare, a company which makes catheters and other medical instruments, in this research. They will now continue with a second study. The projects are funded by Vinnova (a Swedish government agency).

To produce vertical graphene forms such as the ones in this study, a process known as Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, or PECVD, is used. Then, an electric field - a plasma - is applied over the sample, which causes the gas to be ionized near the surface. With the plasma, the layer of carbon grows vertically from the surface, instead of horizontally as with CVD.

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