Researchers from the University of Illinois discovered that graphene transistors have a nanoscale cooling effect that reduces their temperature. Using an atomic force microsope the team made the first ever nanometer-scale temperature measurements of a graphene transistor. This revealed that thermoelectric cooling effects can be stronger at graphene contacts than resistive heating, actually lowering the temperature of the transistor.

This means that graphene-based electronics could require very little cooling (or none at all).