Researchers from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have fabricated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The researchers made pure GQDs using a cost-effective, scalable and environmentally friendly method that allows direct fabrication of GQDs using water, without surfactants or chemical solvents.

Those GQDs were then used as emitter material to create an OLED device.The scientists constructed GQD LEDs exhibiting luminance of 1000 cd/m2, which is well over the typical brightness levels of the portable displays used in smartphones.

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