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What is graphene?

Graphene is a material made of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a repeating pattern of hexagons. Graphene is so thin that it is considered two dimensional. Graphene's flat honeycomb pattern gives it many extraordinary characteristics, such as being the strongest material in the world, as well as one of the lightest, most conductive and transparent. Graphene has endless potential applications, in almost every industry (like electronics, medicine, aviation and much more).

An ideal graphene sheet image



The single layers of carbon atoms provide the basis for many other materials. Graphite, like the substance found in pencil lead, is formed by stacked graphene. Carbon nanotubes are made of rolled graphene and are used in many emerging applications from sports gear to biomedicine.

What is graphene oxide?

As graphene is expensive and relatively hard to produce, great efforts are made to find effective yet inexpensive ways to make and use graphene derivatives or related materials. Graphene oxide (GO) is one of those materials - it is a single-atomic layered material, made by the powerful oxidation of graphite, which is cheap and abundant. Graphene oxide is an oxidized form of graphene, laced with oxygen-containing groups. It is considered easy to process since it is dispersible in water (and other solvents), and it can even be used to make graphene. Graphene oxide is not a good conductor, but processes exist to augment its properties. It is commonly sold in powder form, dispersed, or as a coating on substrates.

Graphene Oxide structure

Graphene oxide is synthesized using four basic methods: Staudenmaier, Hofmann, Brodie and Hummers. Many variations of these methods exist, with improvements constantly being explored to achieve better results and cheaper processes. The effectiveness of an oxidation process is often evaluated by the carbon/oxygen ratios of the graphene oxide.

Graphene oxide uses

Graphene Oxide films can be deposited on essentially any substrate, and later converted into a conductor. This is why GO is especially fit for use in the production of transparent conductive films, like the ones used for flexible electronics, solar cells, chemical sensors and more. GO is even studied as a tin-oxide (ITO) replacement in batteries and touch screens.

Graphene Oxide has a high surface area, and so it can be fit for use as electrode material for batteries, capacitors and solar cells. Graphene Oxide is cheaper and easier to manufacture than graphene, and so may enter mass production and use sooner.

GO can easily be mixed with different polymers and other materials, and enhance properties of composite materials like tensile strength, elasticity, conductivity and more. In solid form, Graphene Oxide flakes attach one to another to form thin and stable flat structures that can be folded, wrinkled, and stretched. Such Graphene Oxide structures can be used for applications like hydrogen storage, ion conductors and nanofiltration membranes.

Graphene oxide is fluorescent, which makes it especially appropriate for various medical applications. bio-sensing and disease detection, drug-carriers and antibacterial materials are just some of the possibilities GO holds for the biomedical field.

Buy Graphene Oxide

Graphene oxide is relatively affordable and easy to find, with many companies that sell it. It does, however, get confusing since different companies offer products that vary in quality, price, form and more - making the choice of a specific product challenging. If you are interested in buying GO, contact Graphene-Info for advisement on the right GO for your exact needs!

Further reading

Latest Graphene Batteries news

Monash University, Ionic Industries and Clean TeQ receive grant to develop GO-based water-treatment technology

Feb 22, 2017

Clean TeQ Holdings, along with Monash University and Ionic Industries, received a grant of $632,285 AUD (almost $500,000 USD) from the Australian Government under the Cooperative Research Centre’s Project (CRC-P) program, to develop energy efficient wastewater treatment technology using graphene oxide technology. The new project is scheduled to commence in March 2017.

Water treatment photo

Researchers at Monash University have developed a method of producing graphene oxide which is suitable for the production of water and wastewater filtration products. Clean TeQ has already commercialized its Continuous Ionic Filtration (CIF®) technology which is used for water and wastewater filtration. The use of graphene oxide adsorbents in Clean TeQ ‘s process will allow the capture of non-ionic species and thereby extend the range of waters than can be successfully treated.

Nippon Shokubai succeeds in mass production test of GO-based materials

Feb 13, 2017

Nippon Shokubai logo imageNippon Shokubai, a Japan-based globalal materials provider, has announced its success in mass production tests of graphene oxide-based materials. The production volume attained in the mass production test was reportedly improved dozens of times as much as that attained at laboratory, and Nippon Shokubai will start to provide graphene oxide-based materials as samples for application development.

The graphene oxide-based materials are lamellar carbon compounds with the approximately 1nm thickness and the company expects them to be suitable for various functional materials, such as lubricants, water treatment membranes, and catalysts. Nippon Shokubai stated that it has resolved various problems relating to chemical reactions of the production process and succeeded in the mass production test by utilizing its control technology for stable proceeding of chemical reactions in collaboration with Okayama University which retained academic knowledge about reaction mechanism of graphene oxide.

Graphene Handbook

A look into Ionic Industries graphene oxide technology and business

Jan 27, 2017

Ionic Industries logoIonic Industries is an Australia-based graphene developer that was spun-off from Strategic Energy Resources (SER still holds 20% in Ionic) in 2015. Ionic Developed a proprietary Graphene Oxide production process and is developing GO-based materials and applications.

Simon Savage, Ionic's Managing Director, was kind enough to discuss the company's technology and the status of Ionic's GO applications.

Exeter team develops a simple and cheap way to make graphene devices

Jan 24, 2017

A team of researchers from Exeter’s Centre for Graphene Science have developed a method for creating entire device arrays directly on the copper substrates used for the commercial manufacture of graphene. Complete and fully-functional devices can then be transferred to a substrate of choice, such as silicon, plastics or even textiles.

This new approach is simpler than conventional ways of producing graphene-based devices, and could lead the way to using simple and cheap-to-produce graphene devices for various applications, from gas and bio-medical sensors to touch-screen displays.

Graphenea announced price reductions

Jan 23, 2017

Graphenea logoGraphenea, a company focused on the production of high quality graphene for industrial applications, has announced a significant price reduction. The price of CVD films has dropped 15% on average this January, and the price of graphene oxide (GO) is being reduced by 30% on average.

CVD films are being offered on the copper substrates that they are grown on, in sizes ranging from 10x10 mm to 4 inch diameter. The same high quality graphene films are also available on SiO2/Si, quartz, PET, suspended on TEM grids and cavities, and on custom substrates as required. For customers wishing to do their own transfer, CVD graphene is also available on polymer films for easy transfer.