Researchers from the University of Tokyo demonstrated an electrically controllable valleytronics device. The device converts regular electrical current to valley current and then passes it through a 3.5 micron channel. The valley current is then converted back to electrical current that can be detected (via its voltage).
To create this new device, the researchers used a bi-layer graphene that is placed between two insulator layers made from hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). This structure is then placed between two conductive layers (or gates) which control the valley. This device operates at -203 degrees Celsius - much higher than expected, and the researchers hope that in the future devices such as this could operate at room temperatures.