Researchers catalog graphene defects

Researchers at MIT have produced a catalog of the exact sizes and shapes of defects and holes that would most likely be observed (as opposed to the many more that are theoretically possible) when a given number of atoms is removed from the atomic lattice. The MIT team collaborated on this project with researchers at Lockheed Martin Space and Oxford University.

MIT develops graphene defects catalog imageThe 12 different forms that six-atom vacancy defects in graphene can have, as determined by the researchers

“It’s been a longstanding problem in the graphene field, what we call the isomer cataloging problem for nanopores,” Michael Strano from MIT says. "For those who want to use graphene or similar two-dimensional, sheet-like materials for applications including chemical separation or filtration", he says, “we just need to understand the kinds of atomic defects that can occur,” compared to the vastly larger number that are never seen".

NYU team's findings on defects in graphene to benefit environmental and medical sensors

A team of NYU researchers has tackled the longstanding question of how to build ultra-sensitive, ultra-small electrochemical sensors with homogeneous and predictable properties, by discovering how to engineer graphene structure on an atomic level. The team's findings could benefit biochemical detection, environmental monitoring, and lab-on-a-chip applications

Finely tuned electrochemical sensors (also referred to as electrodes) that are as small as biological cells have tremendous potential for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring systems. However, efforts to develop them have encountered obstacles, like the lack of quantitative principles to guide the precise engineering of the electrode sensitivity to biochemical molecules.

Team at Australia's RMIT finds silicon contamination of graphene as a hindrance to commercial adoption

Researchers at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) have found that graphene could better fulfill its potential when purified to remove silicon, doubling its electrical performance.

Despite researchers demonstrating countless possible applications of graphene, many people feel that graphene is thus far showing rather sluggish industrial adoption. Now, researchers based at RMIT have proposed a possible reason for this and suggested how graphene's full potential could be unlocked.

Researchers develop a technique to fabricate large squares of graphene riddled with controlled holes

Researchers at MIT have found a way to directly “pinprick” microscopic holes into graphene as the material is grown in the lab. Using this technique, they have fabricated relatively large sheets of graphene (roughly the size of a postage stamp), with pores that could make filtering certain molecules out of solutions vastly more efficient.

Holes would typically be considered unwanted defects, but the MIT team has found that certain defects in graphene can be an advantage in fields such as dialysis. Typically, much thicker polymer membranes are used in laboratories to filter out specific molecules from solution, such as proteins, amino acids, chemicals, and salts. If it could be tailored with selectively-sized pores that let through certain molecules but not others, graphene could substantially improve separation membrane technology.

Japanese team designs a graphene-based electrode that can produce hydrogen under acidic conditions

Researchers at the Japanese Tsukuba University described a graphene-based electrode that can produce hydrogen under acidic conditions. The electrolysis of water to generate hydrogen is vital for energy storage in a green economy. One of the major obstacles, however, is the high cost of noble-metal electrodes. Cheaper non-noble electrodes function well in driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), but mainly in alkaline conditions, where the reaction is electricity-hungry. The more efficient acid-phase reaction requires precious metals such as platinum. Worse still, the acid electrolytes are corrosive and eat away at the core metal.

Perforated graphene for hydrogen production image

The researchers have found that holey graphene offers a way around this problem. They used nitrogen-doped graphene sheets to encapsulate a nickel–molybdenum (NiMo) electrode alloy. The graphene was punched full of nanometer-size holes. The researchers showed that in acid conditions, their HER system dramatically outperforms an electrode using regular non-holey graphene. The use of graphene in HER electrodes is not new—this flexible, conductive carbon sheet is ideal for wrapping around the core metal. However, although it protects the metal against corrosion, graphene also suppresses its chemical activity. In the Tsukuba system, the holes promote the reaction in two ways, while the intact graphene part protects the metal.

Versarien - Think you know graphene? Think again! Versarien - Think you know graphene? Think again!