Researchers from MIT use DNA to form nanoscsale shapes on graphene. The idea is to fold DNA to a specific shape and then deposit it on graphene. Using plasma lithography the shapes are then "etched" to the graphene sheet.

The researchers created the DNA structures using short synthetic DNA strands called single-stranded tiles. The tiles are assembled into shapes in a simple reaction. They can also be constructed using an approach called DNA origami, in which many short strands of DNA fold a long strand into a desired shape.

The DNA is anchored on the graphene using a molecule called aminopyrine (which is similar in structure to graphene). The DNA is then coated with small clusters of silver along the surface, and then coated with gold. The DNA is then used as a mask for the plasma lithography process.