Researchers from the Universities of California and Michigan suggest coating artificial hearts with a catalyst that can help against blood clotting which is a problem for many artificial heart patients that have to rely on blood-thinning drugs (anticoagulants) to stop the clotting.

The catalyst interacts with the blood to convert glucose and L-arginine amino acid to create ntroxyl which prevents blood clots. The catalysts are attached to graphene flakes. Those graphene flakes are key elements in this design as it improves the function of the catalyst and also allows it to be dissolved in water. The graphene flakes are not rejected by the body and are not damaged by the catalyst.